Patients with later menarche, earlier menopause have higher risk for rheumatoid arthritis

Menarche after the age of 14 years, or going through menopause before 45 years of age, are among the hormonal and reproductive factors that increase the risk for rheumatoid arthritis, according to data published in RMD Open.
“Female reproductive features, such as puberty, pregnancy, childbirth, menopause, breastfeeding, and exogenous exposure to hormone levels (hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or oral contraceptives) may influence the hormonal environment,” Ling-Qiong Jiang of Anhui Medical University, in China, and colleagues wrote. “For example, Jethwa et al reported

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